Portefeuille de Projets Innovation: Le bon Mix

protefeuilleEn Innovation comme dans toute gestion de portefeuille Projet, la gestion du risque et des opportunités est clé. Cependant en innovation une dimension particulière rentre en jeu : L’horizon d’innovation. Je reviendrai prochainement sur ce sujet dans un article (en anglais) sur la stratégie des horizons en innovation.

Les 4 types d’innovation

En dehors des risques classiques liés à tous projets, les projets d’innovation s’inscrivent dans 4 grandes catégories qui définissent également un profil de risque pour l’entreprise.

  • L’innovation incrémentale. Largement rependu, le concept d’innovation incrémental est compris et appliqué par de nombreuses entreprises. Il s’agit d’améliorer à la marge, des produits existants en optimisant une fonction ou en rajoutant de nouvelles. C’est sur ce segment que la plupart des entreprises que j’ai accompagnées investissent la plus grosse partie de leur budget.
  • L’innovation Business Model qui est connue mais beaucoup moins appliquée. Il s’agit là de réfléchir non pas à développer de nouveaux produits ou services mais bien de penser à une nouvelle relation, une nouvelle expérience avec son client. C’est un mode très important car cela permet souvent de trouver des relais de croissance à moindre cout et à risque faible.
  • L’innovation de rupture est également largement connue. Il s’agit là de révolutionner complètement le marché auquel l’innovation s’attaque. L’innovation de rupture présente bien entendu un profil de risque bien plus élevée.
  • La Spin off qui consiste à externaliser (ou acquérir) les produits/services, nouveaux ou non pour attaquer un nouveau marché ou un nouveau segment. Ce type d’innovation permet de diversifier ses marchés et donc de limiter les risques business.

 

Déterminer le bon Mix

Bien entendu chaque entreprise, chaque compagnie, aura son mix parfait en fonction de plusieurs facteurs qui sont à prendre en compte dans la gestion et la détermination du portefeuille :

  • La stratégie globale de l’entreprise. Aucun besoin de revenir là-dessus, toutes les actions d’une entreprise doivent être en accord avec sa stratégie. A noter cependant que l’innovation peut être justement un moyen de modifier fondamentalement la stratégie pour changer d’une stratégie de protection de part de marché vers une stratégie agressive de conquête ou une stratégie de développement sur un nouveau segment.
  • L’environnement économique. Bien entendu, la santé financière de l’entreprise et les marges de manœuvre qu’elle procure influe fondamentalement sur le mix du portefeuille innovation.
  • La maturité innovation de l’organisation. Si une organisation est incapable de prendre en main une innovation réellement de rupture et d’en tirer le maximum de bénéfice, aucun intérêt à trop investir sur ce segment. Si au contraire l’organisation sait vraiment en tirer la quintessence et même sortir ces innovations de l’organisation actuelle (ou la modifier en profondeur) pour développer tous les potentiels alors il semble intéressant d’appuyer sur ce segment.

Bien gérer son portefeuille

Qui qu’il en soit, il est bon de noter 4 conseils fondamentaux dans la gestion d’un portefeuille d’innovation :

  • Toutes innovations qu’elle soient, les projets restent des projets et les risques projet ne doivent jamais être en retrait pour favoriser le mix du portefeuille
  • Le mix portefeuille est dynamique. Il varie dans le temps selon les résultats, le contexte etc…
  • Même dans les cas extrêmes il est toujours nécessaire d’avoir des projets dans au moins les 3 premières catégories (Incrémentale, de rupture et business model) car ce sont le cœur de l’activité de l’entreprise qui est en jeu.
  • Une trop grande disparité dans les arbitrages est un risque important qui doit être jaugé (tout comme dans un portefeuille d’actions, on cherche à maximiser les chances de réussites en diversifiant les investissements).

 Et vous, pensez-vous que votre mix projet est bon?

 

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